International Journal of Film and Media Arts 2020-07-02T14:08:55+00:00 Anna Coutinho Open Journal Systems <p>The International Journal of Film and Media Arts is a semiannual publication focusing on all&nbsp;areas of film and media arts research and critique, namely&nbsp;animation, television, media arts, videogames, fine arts, sound and their varied social and cultural forms of expression and materialization.</p> Augmented reality to enhance non-opposite reality awareness 2020-07-01T17:23:24+00:00 Adriana Baptista Celda Morgado José António Costa João Azevedo <p>Lexicon allows particular cosmovisions built up with varied semantic, formal and pragmatic-discursive relations (Coseriu, 1991; Teixeira, 2005). In teaching context, these variations are often replaced by dichotomous and decontextualized proposals of lexical organisation (Baptista et al., 2017). We hope changing some teaching practices, based on complex lexical relationships research, and on new didactic resources.<br>Firstly, we account for the diversity of existing lexical relations (Choupina et al., 2013), considering different linguistic criteria (Lehmann &amp; Martin-Berthet, 2008). Then, we present an exploratory study to see if primary school pupils’ mental lexicon is intuitively organised in a dichotomous way. Departing from three bimodal narratives where words show opposition relations, although not exclusive, within the story, sometimes oppositional relations become similarity relations. These relationships allow to group words such as word class, worldviews, socio-cultural references.<br>Although this approach starts with antonyms and synonyms in second-grade classes (according to Portuguese primary school curriculum, Buescu et al., 2015), we registered varied students’ responses, reflecting a mental lexicon escaping the dichotomy of certain oppositions taught in a decontextualized way.<br>Thirdly, we propose an augmented reality tool that allows children (and adults) to watch visual narrative representing actions from written narratives. As a matter of fact, within particular contexts, words may not relate to each other in an opposite way. If intuitive knowledge on words isn’t confined to rigid perspectives, teaching shouldn’t lead that way, but to promote a critical thinking approach supporting education for citizenship.</p> 2020-07-01T17:19:43+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Uncovering literacy practices in the game Total War: Shogun 2 with a contract-agency model 2020-07-01T17:23:21+00:00 Pedro Pinto Neves Leonel Morgado Nelson Zagalo <p>This paper showcases how the Contract Agency Model can be used to uncover literacy practices in videogame’s own terms as a complement to existing, more ‘indirect’ games literacies, using as an example the videogame Total War: Shogun 2. The paper first situates the Contract Agency Model within approaches to videogames and within approaches to media literacy. The paper then identifies three interesting literacy practices in the videogame, which also exemplify the eight levels of abstraction of the Contract Agency Model. The paper concludes by discussing the model’s implications to media literacy and videogames, namely that videogames effect a second-order mutual signalling with their players – agency as a conversation of commitment to meaning – that is humanizing of those players, and that the model can uncover this as an implicit contract of bio-costs, as a ‘direct’ literacy of videogames, i.e. a literacy in videogames’ own terms.</p> 2020-07-01T17:13:13+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ‘Videogametism’: Consolidating the recognition of video games as an art form 2020-07-01T17:23:18+00:00 Marco Fraga da Silva <p>Because video games are still considered ’low culture’ by many whilst being one of the most important art forms of the XXI century, this pa­per proposes a new concept for the field of game studies with the main goal of being a useful tool for the consolidation of the artistic recognition of the medium. A few countries have officially recognized video games as an art form and im­plemented legislation to support video game artists and their work; unfortunately, many gov­ernments still do not recognize this artistic field. For video games to achieve a widespread artistic legitimation it is necessary more critical thinking and institutional validation. The proposed neolo­gism – ‘videogametism’ – is an appropriation of the Eisensteinian concept of ‘cinematism’ and, as Sergei Eisenstein’s legitimation term, ‘videog­ametism’ intends to support the recognition of video game artistic status, asserting that all art forms are present in this medium and that some artistic artifacts are ‘videogamatic’.</p> 2020-07-01T16:59:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Empowerment and ownership in intellectual disability gaming 2020-07-01T17:23:15+00:00 Carla Sousa <p>As with other populations, the usage of games by people with Intellectual Disability (ID) has been increasingly approached by research. Notwithstanding, the role of games in the lives of people with disabilities tends to be studied through a categorical picture that emphasizes its therapeutic characteristics and neglects games as recreation and as a form of cultural expression. The present work aims to review the main research outcomes of the last 10 years in the field of gaming and ID. It presents an analysis of the main research objectives and approaches to gaming adopted in the analysed studies, as a path to reflect on two specific concepts: empowerment and ownership. Therefore, a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) methodology, accompanied by statistical and content analysis procedures, was adopted to analyse a sample of 61 peer-reviewed research papers (2010-2020) in this field. The obtained results emphasize the passive role of individuals with ID in games research, with gaming mainly seen through therapeutic our game-based learning approaches. The presented reflection on inclusive research, through the parallelism between game studies and critical disability studies, also highlights that the access to games, as a cultural expression, for people with ID could foster the inclusion of these individuals in the public sphere, both in media and in the democratic civic structures. The produced insights intend to frame future approaches that situate the potential of games and their accessibility as strategies to decrease environmental barriers and hindrances that people with ID face in their specific contexts and foster inclusion.</p> 2020-07-01T16:50:44+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Cover and Contents 2020-07-02T14:08:55+00:00 Anna Coutinho 2020-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Editorial 2020-07-01T17:23:11+00:00 Filipe Luz Conceição Costa 2020-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020